November 16, 2004

Introduction to Smart Cards

Note: A PDF copy of this article, along with proper figures and correct formatting for printing, is available at Rootshell.

Right now, inside your wallet, you probably have a couple of credit cards, an ID card, an ATM card and maybe a few other plastic cards. Without our realizing it, these plastic cards have become a very important part of our life. Consider a few scenarios where we use plastic cards these days:

• To identify ourselves.
• To obtain cash from the banks.
• As credit cards.
• Conventional Telephony.
• Access Control.
• Loyalty Programs.

Most of these plastic cards are usually magnetic stripe cards. In spite of their tremendous popularity, magnetic stripe cards suffer from one crucial weakness. Data stored on them can be easily read and modified by someone with access to the right kind of equipment. As a result, confidential information like PIN Number or a password can not be stored on them and a transaction host (POS device/ATM) will have to go online to verify the PIN and this in most European and Asian countries is time consuming and costly.

Enter Smart Cards. The development of smart cards along with rapid advances in cryptography has resulted in a solution to the above-mentioned problem. This article will introduce the reader to the various aspects of the Smart Card.

History of Smart Cards
Many people consider smart cards a recent invention. Nothing could be further from the truth. In 1968, German inventor Jurgen Dethloff along with Helmet Grotrupp filed a patent for using plastic as a carrier for microchips. In 1970, Japanese inventor, Kunitake Arimura, applied for a similar patent. Smart Cards were introduced in Japan in the same year. In 1974, Frenchman Roland Moreno registered his smart card patent in France.

Given that the majority of smart card research initially went on in Europe, it is not surprising that Europeans are among the largest users of smart cards. Europe currently accounts for nearly 80% of the smart card market. France and Germany have been leading the world in terms of introducing various applications on smart cards. Smart cards are already being used the world over for a variety of purposes and in future they will become even more pervasive.

Before we go into the details of Smart Cards, it might be a good idea to understand a little bit more about their predecessor, the Magnetic Stripe Card.

Magnetic Stripe Card
Turn your credit card around. Chances are you will see a black stripe, approximately half inch wide, running across it. This black stripe, consisting of three tracks of magnetic particles bonded to the card substrate, is the core of a magnetic stripe card. The magnetic stripe cards were introduced to:

• Store data in a machine-readable form.
• Minimize paper utilization in financial transactions.
• Allow for automation

As explained before, the magnetic stripe consists of three tracks. A track is divided into tiny domains, each domain being one-75th of an inch long. To store data on the magnetic stripe card, the particles in a domain are magnetized in a particular fashion (see Figure 1). If within a domain the polarization of the particles doesn’t change, then there is no flux reversal and it represents a 0. But if the polarization changes, then there is a flux reversal and it represents a 1.

Figure 1: Magnetic Stripe with Domains
[The arrows in the domains represent the polarization of the magnetic particles in the domain.]

When the magnetic stripe card is read, based on flux reversals the reader gets the data stored on it. The magnetic stripe shown in Figure 1 would be read as: 0 1 0 0 1 0

The length of a magnetic stripe is around 4 inches and it consists of three tracks. Each track is made of domains 1/75th of an inch long. Each domain represents one bit. Hence the total data carrying capacity of a magnetic stripe card is just 900 - 1000 bits.

The main problem with magnetic stripe cards is data can be easily read and altered by anyone with access to the right kind of equipment. Card Skimming is the name given to the process of reading data of a valid card and copying it bit for bit on another card. Readers for magnetic stripe cards cost around $100 while encoders (writers) come for as cheap as $1000. As a result of this drawback, these cards cannot be used for storing confidential information.

Smart Card Classification

Smart cards are the youngest members of the plastic card family. A Smart Card is defined as:

A plastic card, usually similar in size and shape to a credit card, containing a microprocessor and memory (which allows it to store and process data) and complying with ISO 7816 standard

In layman’s term a smart card can be defined as a card with a very tiny computer embedded in it.

Though they can be classified on basis of various parameters, we shall discuss the classification on basis of Card Components, Card Interface and Smart Card OS only in this article. This classification is better depicted in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Smart Card Classification

Component Based Classification

When classified on basis of components they contain, smart cards can be put into two categories. Those with a processor are called chip cards or microprocessor cards and those without a chip are called memory cards.

Memory Cards:
These are the most common and least expensive cards. They contain:

• EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. This is like a data storage device where all the application data gets written. Typical EEPROM size varies from 2KB to 8 KB. The EEPROM data can be locked with a PIN and it usually varies with time. For example, in a telephone card, the EEPROM might hold the talk time left.

• ROM: Read Only Memory. It stores data that does not change during the card life. It might hold card number, cardholder’s name etc.

Security logic controls access to the memory and enable read from and write to it. Regions of memory are accessible only after a secret code is provided. This code may be provided by the smart card reader device or the card-holder. A simplified architecture of a memory card is depicted in the Figure 3.

The simple technology of these cards enables them to be made very cheaply (around $1, when purchased in bulk). These cards can store data from a few 100 bytes to up to 8 KB. These cards find wide acceptance in the pre paid phone card segment because of their simplicity. Other possible areas where they can be used include vending machines, transport and ticketing, pre paid parking schemes and loyalty programs.

Figure 3: Internal Architecture of a Memory Card

Microprocessor/Chip Cards
As the name implies, these are cards that incorporate a microprocessor. They are the ones that technically can be called smart cards. The important components of a chip card are:

• ROM: Read Only Memory. The ROM holds the cards operating system and is also known as the mask of the card. This is written to only once (usually during the card production phase). The size of ROM varies from a few KB to 32 KB, depending on which Operating System is being used by the card. Once written, it cannot be altered.

• EEPROM: The EEPROM holds the cards application programs and the application data. This data is not permanent and is often erased and rewritten. Typical EEPROM sizes range from 2 KB to 32 KB.

• RAM: Random Access Memory. This is the volatile memory used by the processor to run the desired functions. The memory is erased whenever the power is switched off. Surprising as it may sound, the typical size of RAM is around 256 bytes. This is because RAM occupies the maximum area per byte and the area of a smart card is restricted to 25 mm2.

• CPU: Central Processing Unit. This is the heart of a chip card. It is usually an 8-bit microprocessor based on CISC architecture with typical clock speeds of 5 MHz. This is slowly moving towards a 32-bit architecture due to Java Cards. The CPU is responsible for carrying out various instructions.

Chip cards are more expensive than memory cards. Their cost ranges from $2 to $20 depending on the features available. These cards can house multiple applications and provide robust security. Such cards are used in access control, electronic purses, credit and other financial cards, travel, ticketing and other applications where high security is required. A simplified version of the internal architecture of a memory card is shown in the Figure 4.

Figure 4: Internal Architecture of a Chip Card

Interface Based Classification
Smart Cards are also classified on the basis of the method of their communication and data transfer with the reader device. Based on this criterion, the smart cards are classified as contact cards, contactless cards, and combi cards. Contact cards have to be inserted into the reader while contactless cards are powered by a Radio Frequency signal and don’t require insertion into a reader. Combi cards, also known as hybrid cards, can be powered by insertion or by a Radio Frequency Signal.

Contact Cards

These cards require insertion into the card reader for being powered. Each such card contains 6-8 gold plated contacts that are in physical contact with the reader. The physical contact may be established either by sliding or by landing. The card receives power from the reader via these contacts. As per ISO-7816, the card contacts are numbered as shown in Figure 5 and the designation of the contacts, along with their functions are explained in Table 1.

Figure 5: Card Contacts as per ISO-7816

Table 1: Smart Card Contacts according to ISO-7816

Contact cards have certain limitations. With age, these contacts get worn out. Electrostatic discharges, due to improper contact may damage the circuits. Cardholders some times pull out the cards from the reader before the transaction is completed, leading to what is known as Card Tearing. Rough handling and stresses during card insertion lead to damage of the card.

Contactless Cards
Contactless cards don’t require insertion into the reader. They just have to be passed near an antenna for the transaction to be carried out. The reading distance varies from a few cms to up to 50 cms. As there is no contact, these cards solve most of the limitations listed under the contact cards. Such cards are often used in places where the transaction has to be carried out very quickly. For example: mass transit, road tolling etc.

Contactless cards are costlier compared to contact cards. But they also have a greater life span and are more reliable.

Combi or Hybrid Cards
Combi cards are those which have both a contact as well as a contactless interface facilitating its use in either way. For example, a contact card could be slipped into a pouch that has a battery and an antenna and can communicate with a contactless reader. Other combi cards could be simpler with two interfaces, one for contact readers and another for contactless readers. The contactless chip is used for applications that require fast transaction times and the contact chip is used for those applications that require higher security.

OS Based Classification
Smart cards are also classified on the basis of their Operating System. There are many Smart Card Operating Systems available in the market, the main ones being:

1. MultOS
2. JavaCard
3. Cyberflex
4. StarCOS
5. MFC

Smart Card Operating Systems or SCOS as they are commonly called, are placed on the ROM and usually occupy lesser than 16 KB. SCOS handle:

• File Handling and Manipulation.
• Memory Management
• Data Transmission Protocols.

Advantages of Smart Cards
Compared to magnetic stripe cards, smart cards have many advantages:

• Smart cards can hold up to 32 KB of data while magnetic cards as seen earlier can hold only around 1000 bits. This allows the card-transaction participants (card company, acquiring bank, issuing bank, retailers etc.) to store a lot of additional information on the card.

• Data on a smart card can be protected against unauthorized viewing. As a result of this confidential data (PIN, Passwords) can be stored on a smart card. This means, merchants do not have to go online every time to authenticate a transaction.

• A single smart card can house multiple applications. Just one card can be used as your license, passport, credit card, ATM card, ID Card etc.

• Life of a smart card is longer.

• Smart cards cannot be easily replicated and are, as a general rule much more secure that magnetic stripe cards.

Given these advantages, smart cards have really caught on in the telephony segment. But unfortunately, they have not been as successful in the financial cards segment. The only thing holding back the widespread use of smart cards in this sector is the amount of money invested by various players in the magnetic stripe card infrastructure and the slightly higher cost of smart cards.

Smart Card Applications
Based on numbers, pre-paid telephone cards seem to be the most common smart card application. Often such applications are reloadable. Value can be added to a card by paying the dealer. This ensures repeated usage of the smart card. Along with conventional telephony, cellular phones also use smart cards. The SIM card that is inserted into a cellular handset is nothing but a smart card.

The advent of smart cards has allowed banks to replace their current cards [ATM, Debit, Credit Account, Travel and Entertainment Cards] with one card. Smart cards are also being used in quite a few countries as electronic purses. Along with banks, many retailers have started using smart cards as Loyalty Cards.

Health care is another sector where smart cards are making their mark. Versichertenkarte in Germany and Sesam Vitale in France are examples of schemes using Smart Cards in health insurance schemes. Over 80 million such cards have been issued.

Smart cards are currently being used for fast ticketing in public transport, parking and road tolling in many countries. South Korea issued 1.5 million cards for public transport and is the largest user of smart cards in public transport. Hong Kong, with its Octopus Cards is set to follow South Korea in this respect. In India, Indian Railways is also experimenting with smart cards for ticketing purposes.

Many universities and schools are using smart cards for ID purposes. These ID cards can also be used at the library, canteen, vending machines and other services on the campus.

Future of Smart Cards
Given the advantages of smart cards over magnetic stripe cards, there can be no doubt that the future of smart cards is very bright. If the current trends are anything to go by, the smart card market is set for exponential growth in the next few years.

Future for smart cards depends mainly on the introduction of multi-application cards and overcoming the simplistic mindset that smart cards are just a method of making a payment.


• Smart Card Handbook: W. Rankl & W. Effing
• Smart Card Security and Applications: Mike Hendry
• Smart Cards Case Study: IBM Redbook
• ISO 7816 Specifications
• EMV 2000 Specifications


At 3:56 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
do u have a pdf version of this article.

-praveen jalem

PS: waiting for the last quiz results.

At 5:49 PM, Blogger Dhar said...


Send me your email ID. Will mail the article to you.


At 5:58 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Its praveenjalem AT gmail


At 8:41 AM, Blogger Dhar said...


Have sent you the PDF version...


At 9:21 PM, Blogger Nilesh said...

Yay! Thanks for the informative article. Coincidentally I am currently working on a smart card based solution for our internal setup.

At 9:36 PM, Blogger Dhar said...

Hmmm, Nilesh is this Smart Card project something related to security? Curious...


At 2:52 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

One of the biggest users of smart cards in India is Bharat Petroleum - they have a retail card for fuels called PetroBonus Petrocard which combines a payment (stored value) and loyalty (points collection/redemption) application. This card is being used by over 1.5 million customers (June 2004).

At 7:00 PM, Blogger Dhar said...

Hi Anonymous,

Thanks for the comment on usage of Smart Cards in India. Can you please get in touch with me at sumit.dhar at

There are a few things I would like to ask you.


At 5:24 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

its great!!
I also need PDF File of ur Article. plzz mail at

At 10:08 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I tried the two links at the bottom of the article and neither of them worked (for me, anyway). I guess they're just out of date:


At 4:25 PM, Anonymous Jens Kubieziel said...


all pictures are missing because the other website is down. Do you have a local copy and can put them online?

At 3:14 PM, Anonymous Edy Salim said...

hi dhar,
i can't see the images.
could u plz send me your article to edysalim at

edy salim

At 6:43 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

Can you send a PDF version of the article to


At 8:39 AM, Blogger Dhar said...


Have sent the PDF version of the article to your email ID.


At 10:04 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...


Could you mail this article in a Pdf format to my email ?


At 3:46 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

am trying to find out the name/story of the Grade 6 girl to whom the idea for the Hong Kong Octopus card is attributed. Apparently she was the daughter of someone powerful in HK government and won a competition with the initial idea.

At 1:15 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I can't see the images but would like too. Could you send me the PDF please?
canti (-at-)

At 6:39 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...


can you send me this article in pdf, please. My mail is:
jedi AT sezampro.yu

Best regards,

At 3:30 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...


At 10:35 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,
It's really very useful article. Do you have still more advanced information related to smart card. If so please mail me.


At 5:37 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Very useful article.Can you send me information on Mifare cards.Plz send at

At 11:24 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hey man if you could make images avaailable on smart cards , none of them are showing on ur blog

At 11:26 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

This is very good article on smart card , but as we are not able to see the images. Anyone of you can please send the pdf and image files to me.
my mail id is
Thanks in advance

At 10:03 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,
Your article on smart cards is very explanatory. However, all the pictures are missing. It'd be nice if you think of a way to reincorporate the pictures.

At 4:17 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Dhar, can send me a pdf version of this article as well?
Many thanks

At 10:38 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi! I am Nguyễn Hà, I come from VietNam. I am very interested in your artical but I can not see any figures. Would you please send me another version that have figure? Thanks you very much.

At 10:40 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi! I am Nguyễn Hà, I come from VietNam. I am very interested in your artical but I can not see any figures. Would you please send me another version that have figure? My email is Thanks you very much.

At 4:08 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello, great article!! Can you send a pdf version of this article to


Julio Castillo
Grupo de Investigación en Tarjetas Inteligentes
(Smart Card Research Team)

At 4:11 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
very helpful article indeed.
Can you send me a copy of the article too in pdf format to
Thanks a lot and keep up the good work! :)

At 8:06 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

The article is very informative.Can you please send me the PDF version to You.

At 10:00 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
your article is very informative. however the figures are not displayed. could you please send the pdf version of the article to
haroon ahmad

At 6:28 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

an informative article but i can't see any figures. do u hav mo information on how they are manufactured and implemented, i'm working on a project on access control using smart card interface. mo info will really be of help. ciao
please mail me at

At 10:37 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,
thanks for an excellent article on smart cards. can u plz send a pdf version on my mail id


At 2:19 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

This was very informative article. I was part of a team that sucessfully implemented the Multipurpose smart card system for the Govt. of Malaysia, where we provided a Smart ID card for every citizen of malasia that had capabilities of replacing the entire wallet of the card holder including passport information for travel across ASEAN nations.

I would like to discuss with you on your interest in smart cards and more. Also I would like to have an PDF file for your article with images. My mail ID is brijeshpatil at hotmail dot com.

Thank you,


At 3:15 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

Can you send me the pdf version as well??? My email is ognjen[AT] (remove the [AT] and replace with @)

At 7:25 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Pls send pdf version/doc to

I hope u would.

Thanks in advance.


At 11:50 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

This article is very helpful to understand smart cards. Can you send me a pdf file?

Davd H. Choe

At 4:54 PM, Blogger Khalid said...

Can you tell me the life of Smart card (In terms of age or number of uses or Number of insertions in the slot )

At 3:02 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi there frm nepal, our college recently introduced smrt cards for identification and payments. canu tell me if smart cards can be safely kept in wallets and can they be damaged by slight bending or magnets, heat?

At 3:07 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi i am the one frm nepal asking about smart cards. could u mail me the answer at also could u mail me the pdf version of this article. thanks.

At 1:45 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello from Texas, US. Thank you for showcasing this important article. Would you be kind enough to email the PDF version to


At 6:12 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi....this is ashish from NIT jaipur.Thanks for this useful piece of information.Actually i am giving a seminar on this topic.i would like you to plz send me any latest updates on this topic.I can't see the images but would like too. Could you send me the PDF please?
my email id is:

At 5:10 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

thanks a lot sir.... i cudnt find a better explanation around da web... :)

At 2:32 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

This is priya here.
i'm unable to see the diagrams that is why i'm unable to prepare for my seminar. I have to give the seminar on this topic .So kindly send the pdf with all diagrams useful for my seminar

At 1:36 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

Can you send a PDF version of the article to


At 6:50 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...


I could use the PDF version of the article too...
email to: mr[dot]bal[dot]agil[at]gmail[dot]com

At 8:20 AM, Blogger Dhar said...

Ladies / Gentlemen,

The URL to download the PDF copy of this article is given right at the top of the article.

For the sake of those who missed it, it is available at:


At 3:25 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I am working on smartcard product.
we are providing the smart card soution to students & staff community of India

At 5:03 PM, Anonymous pooja kapoor said...

This is very good article on smart card , but as we are not able to see the images. Anyone of you can please send the pdf and image files to me.
my mail id is
piz its very me

At 6:12 PM, Blogger Dhar said...

Just to remind you all, a copy of the article is available at Rootshell.


At 2:11 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...


Very nice introductory article.
The links seem to be not working..
I mean, the links given are not valid.


At 12:19 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Could someone get us some reference where could be get detailed informations of all Card Operating System ?

I'm interested in features comparison from Multos, JavaCard and StarCos (and others).

eg: Multos and Javacard can be programmed, but what about Starcos and others ?


At 7:56 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

just peeped in here to thank you for sharing this valuable information. especially the inclusion of pdf version

-manpreet singh

At 4:28 PM, Anonymous hemant said...

A good introduction to the base concepts.
To get further background into the other ascpects of plastic cards in general as well as personalisation of plastic cards it may be useful to browse the site
I would be glad to assist with specific knowledge based queries.
Hemant Jain

At 1:35 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi, i am glad to read the introduction of smart card, but how the picture can not see, can i ask the list of smart card the difference and the comparison chart, between memory and the microprocessor type?

Charles TF. chan

At 7:55 AM, Anonymous tejaswini said...

hey nice article could mail the pdf version .. along witht he images to

At 7:14 PM, Blogger 1smart1 said... for sale with matching tollfree number 8776278227

won't last long call Jerry
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At 1:09 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
do u have a pdf version of this article.
my id is

At 10:09 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
could u plz mail the pdf version of ur article at and would u suggest some innovative application of smart card for my final year engineering project?

At 8:11 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
I like your article but I can not see the images, so can you send the article to my e-mail , also can you explain the structure of the file system of smart cards , I looked at EMV specs. but I did not understand it:):)

At 9:41 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
this is deepak chawla.i need some info. on contactless smart cards.could you send the pdf version of this file and some info. on contactless cards..please..

p.s-good blog

At 9:45 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
this is deepak chawla, i need some info. on contactless smart cards.could you please send the pdf version of this file at do you have some data on contactless cards also.please send it too.please..immediately.

p.s- good blog

At 7:29 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi Dhar,

I really enjoyed reading your article, but I want to see the whole images. Could u please mail the pdf version of ur article at

Seungmin Cho

At 7:04 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Yes, I'd like a pdf version too please, the images aren't appearing please send to


At 3:24 PM, Blogger said...

Introductin to Smart card industry in China

At 3:25 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Introductin to Smart card industry in China

At 11:19 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,

i am currently working on smart card solutions. your article is very. can i have pdf format of this article. if so, please send me to this mail id.


At 12:17 PM, Anonymous Serg F said...

hi Dhar,
the link provided above the article doensnt work .
would appreciate it if u could mail the pdf verison to


At 6:32 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello Dhar,
I'm Rahimah. Could u pls send me the pdf version of this article? you have any article regarding the contactless smart card reader's circuit?
Thank u.

At 6:35 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello Dhar,
I'm Rahimah. Could u pls send me the pdf version of this article? you have any article regarding the contactless smart card reader's circuit?
Thank u.

At 3:24 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,

can u senfd me the pdf version of this article. r u have any other article on the smart cards industrt in india, if u have , please mail me on


Dhiraj Agrawal

At 5:30 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello Dhar

Anyone have the pdf? please send it to me please,

thank you very mutch :)

At 3:09 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,

it wud b gr8 if u cud mail me d pdf version asap at


At 11:07 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I am a Researcher from Indian University JNTUH. I like to have free downloadable version of smart card simulator for experimenting. Can you please help me?
I am availabe on zulkharnain at the rate of gmail dot com.

At 8:59 PM, Blogger Senthil kumar said...

Hi Dhar,

it was one of the best articles that I have read regarding smart cards. Can u please share this article & any other information available with me in my id

Thk u,

At 11:39 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi dhar,
this is indeed a helpful article.
Thanks a lot. I would appreciate if you can send me the PDF version, and other details regarding CC fraudat

Thanks in advance.

At 9:01 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I didn't see any mention in your article about secure computer network access. I work for a company who authors software allowing for users to access network resources using credentials stored on a smart card without the need to pass credentials across "the wire" thereby making it much more difficult for intruders to penetrate a company's intranet.

At 8:23 PM, Blogger nabendu said...

hi dhar,
do u have a pdf version of this article or a report based on smart card

i need it can u send it on
or on

At 6:07 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
I need PDF File of ur Article with images will u plz send me at

At 2:23 PM, Blogger santhosh said...

hi dhar

The article is really good..can u send t pdf version of this article my id is

At 5:00 AM, Blogger xian xue said...

hey dhar,

that is quite precise and detail article ,i will appreciate if you could send me one pdf cope of it .currently ,i am working on something to do with smartcard.

best regards


At 2:46 AM, Blogger manish.13149 said...

thanx, plz share sm more of ur knowledge.can u help me in knowing diff between smartcards and RFID

At 6:33 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,

Could u send me a pdf version of this article, thanks in advance...

My email address is


At 12:53 PM, Blogger McLing said...

About develop MULTOS application:

Will have more information about ePassport.

At 7:29 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

Your article is very informative..since I am also working in the simillar domain, I would like to have more info on Smart cards.. Could you please send me the pdf version of your presentation and any other useful links, especially regarding SIM cards.

my email :

thanks in advance..

At 6:53 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

Can you send the PDF version of the article (very interesting) to
thanks a lot.

At 3:51 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

Very useful thanks a lot.
Can u plz send me a PDF version of this article to


At 6:56 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

this is nuts! Smartcards?! Its just the government trying to control every aspect of your life! Next it will be the RFID by VeriChip. You really think the government cares for your safety?! More control is all they want! Thats all they wanted from the beginning when Adam Weishaupt founded the Illuminati (May 1, 1776) to be exact. Everything is just gonna go to hell and you're all helping their evil plan for world domination! Heres a clue, go to and search "Zeitgeist". Dont worry I have done plenty more research than just watching this movie, but perhaps it will be an eye opener. And look this up while you're at it. watch it

At 5:43 PM, Blogger Svetoslav said...

First of all I would like to thank you about your post! It is a good resource for essential smart card information. Recently I became more interested in smart cards, rfid, etc., especially when my employers began monitoring our every move with these tiny little devices.

Regarding the last commend about the whole conspiracy thing. I wouldn't go that far, but I suppose the we get monitored and manipulated to a certain point. At one of my posts I ranted about whether RFID can be used by malls to created a common user profile and sell more stuff.

One thing is sure - we are going to see more and more of these devices.

At 11:06 AM, Anonymous facu said...

hi dhar could you email me a copy of the pdf,because the link is not working, and the images are not showing, thanks in advance, my mail is

At 8:48 AM, Anonymous Manish said...

plz mail me Introduction to Smart card pdf. I can't able to find out on site u mention.mine mail id reply soon..

At 2:59 PM, Blogger Thomas said...

I just joined a smart card company. However the details you have provided is much better than what I learnt in my company till now.

At 6:01 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi sir ,this is gopinath M.C.A ,i am going to take seminar on this topic please send pdf and updated info about smart card to my mail it wil be very useful for me and my class mates

my mail id

At 11:46 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Can i also get the pdf version of this article?

my email: erkanio[at]

At 4:49 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

Its very informative article

Can yoy send the pdf version of this article


At 11:15 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi dhar,
The article is very informative.I am unable to see the pictures.Can you please send the PDF version to me
to the below mail account.
thank you,

At 3:02 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,

good article and informatif. Same like the other, I can't see the picture.

could you please email this article to

thak's a lot

At 6:58 PM, Anonymous sivaprakash said...


it shows Errror
The requested URL /~isb/ISC.pdf was not found on this server.

please upload it again or please mail to me




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At 7:23 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

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At 1:27 AM, Anonymous Maik said...


I can´t see the images. could you send them by email?

At 4:30 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

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At 1:28 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

hi dhar,
this is Rehman from pakistan. i am a student and currently a research has been given to me on smart cards. plz send me this article in pdf format if available on my id . it would help me a lot.
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At 7:08 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Dhar,

This is Sekhar from Hyderabad,India.This article is very informative.Can u mail me pdf version of the article --


At 8:11 AM, Anonymous Irene said...

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At 10:39 AM, Blogger suresh said...

Hi Dhar,

Nice article !! Plz send me pdf format of this article to


At 2:56 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

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At 10:46 PM, Blogger seyi said...

hi Dhar,
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At 4:26 PM, Anonymous Venkatesh S J said...

This is Venkatesh (India). I am interested in developing applications using Smart-cards. Tried downloading the pdf from

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thank you in advance.

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At 11:43 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

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At 8:41 PM, Blogger masood_ahm said...

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At 9:35 AM, Anonymous Garogaro said...

Hi dhar,

Could you send me this article via email, because I cannot see the picture.

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